月別アーカイブ: 1月 2011

FMD – live burial – groundwater contamination – South Korea

ProMED-mail Archive Number 20110117.0202
Published Date 17-JAN-2011
Subject PRO/AH/EDR> Foot & mouth disease – S. Korea (05): update
Date: 17 Jan 2011
Source: Voice of America (VOA) [edited]
URL http://www.voanews.com/english/news/asia/South-Korea-Claiming-Upper-Hand-in-Farm-Battle-Against-Foot-and-Mouth-Disease-113871474.html

Nearly 1.7 million animals have been destroyed so far. South Korea, before the culling began, had a total 10 million swine and 3 million cattle.

Live burial 生き埋め
Animal rights activists [動物愛護運動家たち] say most of the pigs and cows ordered destroyed have been buried alive.
Lee Won-bok, the president of South Korea’s Association for Animal Protection, says culling in this manner is illegal and inhumane, but those in the industry do not seem to have any compassion.

Lee Byoung-guan is the deputy director of the National Veterinary Research and Quarantine Service. He says central government authorities never ordered live burials.
Lee [Byoung-guan] says it appears local authorities made their own decisions to kill the animals in this manner.

ProMED-mail Archive Number 20110115.0181
Published Date 15-JAN-2011
Subject PRO/AH> Foot & mouth disease – S Korea (04): update, RFI
[1] Update Date: Sat 15 Jan 2011
Source: Yonhapnews [edited]
URL http://english.yonhapnews.co.kr/business/2011/01/15/8/0501000000AEN20110115001600320F.HTML

[2] Water contamination?
Date: Fri 14 Jan 2011
Source: Circle of Blue [summ., edited]
URL http://www.circleofblue.org/waternews/2011/world/foot-and-mouth-disease%E2%80%94will-mass-animal-burials-cause-water-contamination-in-south-korea/

Foot and mouth disease [FMD] — will mass animal burials contaminate water in South Korea?
groundwater contamination 地下水汚染

For instance, The Korea Times reported last week that tap water [水道水] in a village in Gyeonggi province was contaminated with blood. The news agency reported that residents believe the contamination was related to a livestock slaughter on 31 Dec 2010, when nearly 1000 pigs were buried alive in response to an outbreak of FMD at a nearby farm.

Typically, animals are killed before disposal [処分の前に殺す], but with the outbreak spreading so fast, local authorities did not have the slaughterhouse capacity to follow the rules. Instead, animals within a 500 meter radius of the infected farm were dumped into a pit 5 meters deep that was lined with double-folded vinyl. “It’s possible that the vinyl could be torn by animals struggling [もがいて] to survive,” a quarantine officer told The Korea Times.

[3] Vaccination plans, regaining FMD-free status
Date: Fri 14 Jan 2011
Source: Yonhapnews [edited]
URL http://english.yonhapnews.co.kr/business/2011/01/14/24/0501000000AEN20110114004800320F.HTML


foot and mouth disease – Zimbabwe

Matabeleland South 南マタベレランド州(Province) [南は南アフリカ共和国に接する]

ProMED-mail Archive Number 20110117.0197
Published Date 17-JAN-2011
Subject PRO/AH/EDR> Foot & mouth disease – Zimbabwe: (MS)

Date: Fri 14 Jan 2011
Source: Newsday [edited]
URL http://www.newsday.co.zw/article/2011-01-14-footandmouth-hits-gwanda

南マタベレランド州 Gwanda グワンダ
畜牛が [口蹄疫に感染した] buffalo バッファローと一緒にいる地域で口蹄疫発生 (報告日 [11 Jan 2011])。農場にフェンス(境界柵)はない。

He [, Dr Msongelwa Mangena, the provincial veterinary officer] said the most affected areas were farms surrounding Gwanda town, the Tuli-Magwe area, as well as Guyu.

veterinary department 家畜部は、すでに感染地域の畜牛に対するワクチン接種を開始した。…

[Mod. AS氏解説:
The African buffalo Syncerus caffer [アフリカスイギュウ] (picture at
URL http://www.hlasek.com/foto/syncerus_caffer_bb7899.jpg
[Wikipedia “http://ja.wikipedia.org/wiki/アフリカスイギュウ”]
) is known to play a significant role in the epidemiology of FMD in southern Africa, being a long-term carrier of the FMD virus.

OIE報告 [上記の発生報告は未着]
Event summary: Foot and mouth disease, Zimbabwe
URL http://www.oie.int/wahis/public.php?page=event_summary&reportid=9365

口蹄疫発生件数 4 [南マタベレランド州]
Animals are suspected to have been in contact with previously infected animals during a previous outbreak that occurred in September 2009 at a feedlot [飼養場] in the area.

発生日 [D/M/Y] 28/05/2010

口蹄疫発生件数 10

11/06/2010 Immediate Notification
Outbreak 1 Kitwe dip tank, Plumtree, Mangwe, MATABELELAND SOUTH
Species / Susceptible / Cases / Deaths / Destroyed / Slaughtered
Cattle / 1377 / 163 / 0 / 0 / 0

23/06/2010 Follow-up Report 1
Total outbreaks: 3
Species / Susceptible / Cases / Deaths / Destroyed / Slaughtered
Cattle / 2609 / 26 / 0 / 0 / 0

Administrative division / Species / Total Vaccinated / Details
MATABELELAND SOUTH / Cattle / 17788 / All properties within a 20km radius of infected dip tanks and farms

foot and mouth disease – Mozambique

OIE Event summary: Foot and mouth disease, Mozambique
URL http://www.oie.int/wahis/public.php?page=event_summary&reportid=9766
発生日 [D/M/Y] 24/09/2010
OIE報告日 30/09/2010
口蹄疫発生件数 10

30/09/2010 Immediate Notification
12/10/2010 Follow-up Report 1
12/11/2010 Follow-up Report 2 血清型 SAT 2
28/12/2010 Follow-up Report 3 血清型 SAT 2

追跡調査報告 No. 3 に関して
計 2村
発生日 ともに [D/M/Y] 17/12/2010
モザンビーク 南部 マプト州 {首都は マプト市 [州と同格]} Magude 区(District)
Outbreak 1 (02/MZ/10) Munhuana, Motaze, Magude, MAPUTO
Outbreak 2 (02/MZ/10) Mangandlane, Motaze, Magude, MAPUTO

Mangandlane 村での発生は 村の間で畜牛を違法に移動し、従業員を交換したため、最初の発生が拡大したもの。

Species / Susceptible / Cases / Deaths / Destroyed / Slaughtered
Cattle / 4010 / 179 / 0 / 0 / 0
畜牛 179頭感染。

Illegal movement of animals
Contact with infected animal(s) at grazing/watering
Fomites (humans, vehicles, feed, etc.)

The event was caused by SAT 2 serotype according to the results from Onderstepoort Veterinary Institute (OVI) and Botswana Vaccine Institute (BVI).

ProMED-mail Archive Number 20110104.0039
Published Date 04-JAN-2011
Subject PRO/AH/EDR> Foot & mouth disease – Mozambique: (GA, MP), st SAT2

Date: Wed 29 Dec 2010
Source: The Cattle Site [edited]
URL http://www.thecattlesite.com/news/33112/more-cattle-in-mozambique-hit-by-fmd

ProMED-mail アーカイブ
Foot & mouth disease – Mozambique: (GA, MP), st SAT2 20110104.0039 [当ブログエントリー]

Foot & mouth disease – Mozambique: (GA) bovine, ovine, susp. OIE 20101001.3561

Foot & mouth disease – Mozambique ex Zimbabwe: RFI 20080427.1457
Foot & mouth disease, bovine – Mozambique (Gaza) 20080406.1255

Foot & mouth disease – Mozambique: control 20040613.1591

Foot & mouth disease – Mozambique (03): OIE confirmed 20021113.5792
Foot & mouth disease – Mozambique (02): OIE suspected 20021108.5755
Foot & mouth disease – Mozambique: OIE alert 20021108.5751

foot and mouth disease – Iraq

ProMED-mail Archive Number 20101229.4585
Published Date 29-DEC-2010
Subject PRO/AH/EDR> Foot & mouth disease – Iraq: susp., RFI
Date: Wed 29 Dec 2010
From: Arnon Shimshony [edited]

信頼筋からの情報として 口蹄疫の疑われる事例 畜牛感染が最近、イラクで確認された。
[ブログ投稿者注: 2011年1月16日現在、OIE報告なし]

Arnon Shimshony
ProMED-mail Animal Disease and Zoonoses Moderator

[Mod. AS氏解説:
According to the Iraqi page on the WRLFMD (IAH, Pirbright) website,
FMD is endemic in Iraq; see at
URL http://www.wrlfmd.org/fmd_genotyping/me/irq.htm
The following FMDV serotypes have been identified in Iraq throughout the years:
FMDV-O: 1957, 1959, 1961-1964, 1966, 1969-1970, 1973, 1977, 1985, 1994, 1999-2001
FMDV-A: 1952, 1955, 1963-1964, 1970, 1978, 1985, 2000, 2002, 2009
FMDV-Asia 1: 1975, 1985
FMDV-SAT 1: 1962

The most recent sample from Iraq analysed at WRLFMD (Pirbright), was collected from cattle on 12 Jan 2009 and received by WRLFMD on 15 Feb 2009. According to the report dated 5 Mar 2009, it was designated as serotype A, topotype ASIA, genotype/strain Irn-05. The reference virus strain found to be genetically closest to the said Iraqi serotype A isolate was the Iranian strain A/IRN/1/2005 (95.77 percent identity). …

foot and mouth disease – Zambia

ProMED-mail Archive Number 20101223.4521
Published Date 23-DEC-2010
Subject PRO/AH/EDR> Foot & mouth disease – Zambia (02): (NO) susp. RFI

Date: Tue 14 Dec 2010
Source: Lusaka Times [edited]
URL http://www.lusakatimes.com/2010/12/14/mpulungu-livestock-officials-probe-suspected-animal-disease/

ザンビア 北部州 Mpulungu 地区(District) [下記 Mbala 地区の西]
ウェブマップ URL http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Northern_Zambia_districts.png
2頭の畜牛が死んだ。検査により 口蹄疫が疑われる症状であった。

ProMED-mail Archive Number 20101125.4245
Published Date 25-NOV-2010
Subject PRO/AH> Foot & mouth disease – Zambia: (NO)
Date: 24 Nov 2010

Event summary: Foot and mouth disease, Zambia
URL http://www.oie.int/wahis/public.php?page=event_summary&reportid=9970
当ブログ https://epizootic.wordpress.com/2010/11/26/fmd-northern-zambia/
発生日 2010年9月22日
OIE報告日 2010年11月24日
Serotype O 血清型 O
Outbreak 1 村

ザンビア 北部州 Mbala 地区(District)(タンザニア国境 Rukwa ルクワ州 or/and Mbeya ムベヤ州に接する)
Chizombwe, Mbala Central, Mbala, NORTHERN Tanzania
Species Susceptible Cases Deaths Destroyed Slaughtered
Cattle 2920 72 0 0 0

foot and mouth disease – FMDV serotype O – Burgas – Bulgaria

[追加 2011-01-2117:44]
ProMED-mail Archive Number 20110120.0236
Published Date 20-JAN-2011
Subject PRO/AH/EDR> Foot & mouth disease – Bulgaria (09): (BR) update

[1] Date: Wed 19 Jan 2011
Source: Novinite.com, Sofia News Agency [edited]
URL http://www.novinite.com/view_news.php?id=124306

2011年1月19日、農相 (Miroslav Naydenov 氏) Rezovo 村視察。
In Rezovo, 200 animals owned by 11 farmers have already been slaughtered.

補償内容 省略

[2] Date: Wed 19 Jan 2011
Source: Fax sent by Directorate D – Animal Health and Welfare, EU Health & Consumers DG, Brussels, to CVOs [chief veterinary officers] of all member countries and Iceland, Switzerland, and Norway [edited]

At the time of the culling [on 18 Jan 2011], aphthae, and lesions 2 to 10 days old were observed in the mouths of cattle.
Moreover, today [19 Jan 2011], 21 Turkish buffaloes, which penetrated illegally the territory of Rezovo village, will also be culled and disposed of.

[3] Date: Wed 19 Jan 2011
Source: Novinite.com, Sofia News Agency [edited]
URL http://www.novinite.com/view_news.php?id=124313

[追加 2011-01-22 19:07]
ProMED-mail Archive Number 20110118.0213
Published Date 18-JAN-2011
Subject PRO/AH/EDR> Foot & mouth disease – Bulgaria (08): (BR) 2nd focus, OIE
Date: Mon 17 Jan 2011
Source: OIE, WAHID (World Animal Health Information Database), weekly
disease information 2011; 24(3) [edited]
URL http://www.oie.int/wahis/public.php?page=event_summary&reportid=10138
Report type: follow-up report no 2

New outbreaks
Summary of outbreaks
Total outbreaks: 1
Outbreak 1: Burgas region, Rezovo village, Tsarevo municipality, Burgas
Date of start of the outbreak: 17 Jan 2011
Affected animals
Species / Susceptible / Cases / Deaths / Destroyed / Slaughtered
Cattle / 92 / 3 / 0 / 92 / 0
Sheep and goats / 77 / 0 / 0 / 77 / 0
2010年12月30日採取した複数検体 [コスティ村近くで射止めたイノシシ]は、OIE 基準検査施設 Institute for Animal Health, Pirbright, United Kingdom [WRLFMD OIE 口蹄疫国際確定診断センター]により serotype O, topotype ME-SA, strain PanAsia-2ANT-10 のFMD ウイルス株と判明し、
which has more than 99.5 percent affinity with samples isolated in 2010 in Iran and Turkey and is most closely related to the FMD virus having circulated in Turkey in 2010 (O/TUR/18/2010- 99.84 percent identity).

[追加 2011-01-18 13:57]
Archive Number 20110117.0200
Published Date 17-JAN-2011
Subject PRO/AH/EDR> Foot & mouth disease – Bulgaria (07): (BR) 2nd focus conf.
Date: Mon 17 Jan 2011
Source: Sofia Echo [edited]
URL http://www.sofiaecho.com/2011/01/17/1026250_more-animals-set-for-slaughter-as-fmd-is-confirmed-in-rezovo

ブルガリア南東 Burgas ブルガス州 [Tsarevo Municipality ツァレヴォ基礎自治体] village of Rezovo [村]の農場の動物の血液検体は[ウイルス]陽性であった ( National Veterinary Service 国家獣医サービス発表)。

Rezovo’s 90 cows, 60 sheep, 50 goats and 50 pigs will be killed and the area subjected to a 3-month quarantine.


[追加 2011-01-17 08:31]
ProMED-mail Archive Number 20110116.0190
Published Date 16-JAN-2011
Subject PRO/AH> Foot & mouth disease – Bulgaria (06): (BR) 2nd focus susp
[1] Date: Sat 15 Jan 2011
Source: Focus News Agency [edited]
URL http://www.focus-fen.net/index.php?id=n239588

トルコ国境にある village of Rezovo (ブルガリア南東 Burgas ブルガス州 Tsarevo Municipality ツァレヴォ基礎自治体 Rezovo 村 人口 27人 Wikipedia http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rezovo )で raise freely 放牧している家畜に口蹄疫の臨床所見(典型的でない)がみられた。
トルコからブルガリア領内に入ってきた buffalo バッファロー 21頭の群れと一緒に、乳牛 約90, 羊・ヤギ 約70, 豚 約 30頭が自由に移動している。

2011年1月16日までに Kosti 村と Rezovo 村の新しい感染を制圧する予定であり、半数の動物はすでに殺処分された。European Commission 欧州委員会からの専門家は 2011年1月17日、査察のため到着する予定である。

国境沿いに数年前に築いた有刺鉄線のフェンスは多くの所で miss 欠損[下記英文参照] しているので、動物の移動を止められない。

The reason is the attacks of robbers who steal the metal wire of the fence [金属線の盗難] on the border. A few days ago a herd of buffalo crossed the border and entered Bulgaria’s territory from Turkey, quite freely, [general director of the National Veterinary Medical Service Dr Yordan] Voinov said.

[2] Date: Tue 11 Jan 2011
From: David Thomson [edited]
Sub-regional Animal Health Specialist
Secretariat of the Pacific Community, Port Moresby

[追加 2011-01-13 09:18]
ProMED-mail Archive Number 20110112.0144
Published Date 12-JAN-2011
Subject PRO/AH> Foot & mouth disease – Bulgaria (05): (BR), genotype

[1] Date: Wed 12 Jan 2011
Source: Focus News Agency [edited]
URL http://www.focus-fen.net/index.php?id=n239300

ブルガリア 6州 (district) Varna, Shumen, Yambol, Sliven, Haskovo and Kardzhali の口蹄疫による制限対策を解除 (ブルガリア National Medical Veterinary Service 国家獣医サービス発表)。

沿岸の Burgas ブルガス州のみ隔離・検疫継続 { European Commission (EC) 欧州委員会 Standing Committee on the Food Chain and Animal Health 食品生産流通過程・家畜衛生常設委員会(SCFCAH EU本部 ブリュッセル)決定 }。

No new FMD samples tested positive so far. More than 2800 tests have been made since Friday [7 Jan 2011] until today [12 Jan 2011].

[2] Date: Tue 11 Jan 2011
Source: WRLFMD FMD sequencing report Batch WRLFMD/2011/00002 [summarised, edited]

WRLFMD (OIE 口蹄疫国際確定診断センター)
2010年12月30日のイノシシ 3検体 (コスティ村)を 2011年1月7日受理し、1月11日報告。
結果: 口蹄疫ウイルス 血清型 O, トポタイプ ME-SA, 遺伝子型 PanAsia-2(ant-10)

[3 samples collected from wild boars in Kosti on 30 Dec 2010 were received by WRLFMD on 7 Jan 2011.
Date reported: 11 Jan 2011
The samples were identified as serotype O, Topotype ME-SA, Genotype/strain: PanAsia-2(ant-10).
Most closely Related Virus: O/TUR/18/2010 (percentage identity 99.84).
Most closely related reference virus: O/IRN/88/2009 (percentage identity 98.44).
The full report, with dendograms, is expected to become available on the Bulgarian page of the WRLFMD website
URL http://www.wrlfmd.org/fmd_genotyping/euro/bul.htm

ProMED-mail Archive Number 20110111.0125
Published Date 11-JAN-2011
Subject PRO/AH> Foot & mouth disease – Bulgaria (04): (BR) stock, st O, OIE
Date: Tue 11 Jan 2011
Source: OIE, WAHID (World Animal Health Information Database), weekly
disease information 2011; 24(2) [summ., edited]
URL http://www.oie.int/wahis/public.php?page=single_report&pop=1&reportid=10150
Event summary: Foot and mouth disease, Bulgaria
OIE WAHIS データベース
URL http://www.oie.int/wahis/public.php?page=event_summary&reportid=10138

ブルガリア 南東 Burgas ブルガス州 Tsarevo Municipality ツァレヴォ基礎自治体 Kosti コスティ村 [同国南東端 人口 320人]

以前の口蹄疫発生 1996年10月
Immediate notification 緊急通知
URL http://www.oie.int/wahis/public.php?page=single_report&pop=1&reportid=10138
発生日 2011年1月4日 OIE報告 同年1月7日
血清型 O
Outbreak 1 Kosti village, Tsarevo municipality, BURGAS
Sus scrofa (wild boar) イノシシ 1頭

Follow-up report 追跡調査報告 No. 1
URL http://www.oie.int/wahis/public.php?page=single_report&pop=1&reportid=10150
発生日 2011年1月10日 OIE報告 同年1月11日
血清型 O
Outbreak 1 同村
Species Susceptible Cases Deaths Destroyed Slaughtered 検査結果[下記表示順]

Cattle 194 1 0 0 0 畜牛 121頭の血液検査実施 1頭陽性
Goats 149 12 0 0 0 ヤギ 149頭の血液検査実施 12頭陽性 血清型 O
Sheep 117 14 0 0 0 羊 117頭の血液検査実施 14頭陽性 血清型 O
Swine 72 8 0 0 0 [家畜]豚 22頭の血液検査実施 8頭陽性

疫学的コメント Meat and meat products from infected wild boars are considered as the source of the disease spreading in the domestic population.

ProMED-mail アーカイブ

Foot & mouth disease – Bulgaria (03): (BR) bovine 20110110.0120
URL http://www.google.com/buzz/101683548564074178620/ZUFsAwZF8nw/ProMED-mail-PRO-AH-Foot-mouth-disease-Bulgaria-03

ブルガリア 南東 Burgas ブルガス州 Tsarevo Municipality ツァレヴォ基礎自治体 Kosti コスティ村 [同国南東端 人口 320人]
URL http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kosti_%28village%29
の家畜 37頭が口蹄疫ウイルスに感染したとされ、当局は口蹄疫の拡大を確認した (ブルガリア TVチャンネル bTV 2011年1月10日放送)。

村周囲では 他の複数の感染動物も確認されている (Yordan Voinov from the national veterinary service 国家獣医サービス)。

For the 1st time in 45 years, a case of FMD was registered in the country after a wild boar crossed the border from Turkey near the village of Kosti.

イノシシ 1頭がコスティ村近くの国境を越えてトルコから入ったが、ブルガリアでは過去 45年間で最初の口蹄疫ウイルス感染症例として登録された。

500頭殺処分 (調査した 1600頭中)予定。

Last week [week of 3 Jan 2010], the regional commissions adopted emergency measures against the spread of the virus in Haskovo [ハスコヴォ州], Burgas [ブルガス州], Varna [ヴァルナ州], and Yambol [ヤンボル州].1月11日

Foot & mouth disease – Bulgaria (02): (BR), wild boar, conf. 20110107.0091
URL http://www.google.com/buzz/101683548564074178620/B6MsSYHgPNy/ProMED-mail-PRO-AH-EDR-Foot-mouth-disease-Bulgaria

ブルガリア当局から European Commission 欧州委員会へ報告 [5 Jan 2011]
同委員会による緊急予防対策導入 [6 Jan 2011]

Burgas ブルガス州(高リスク地域)
周囲の Yambol, Sliven, Shumen and Varna 州 (低リスク地域)

両地域の口蹄疫ウイルスに感受性のある生きている動物(ブタ、畜牛、羊など)の dispatch 発送[移動]禁止など。

Foot & mouth disease – Bulgaria: (BR), wild boar, RFI 20110105.0046
URL http://www.google.com/buzz/101683548564074178620/B6MsSYHgPNy/ProMED-mail-PRO-AH-EDR-Foot-mouth-disease-Bulgaria

ブルガリア 南東 Burgas ブルガス州 州都ブルガス市 Makevtci area (トルコ国境から 2km)で、2010年12月30日、複数の猟師が wild boar イノシシ 3頭を射止めた。うち 1頭は足に病変があった。口蹄疫 FMDウイルス 血清型 O 検出。同国では過去 12年間で最初の FMDウイルス感染例。
同州南はトルコ国境。トルコでは FMDウイルス serotypes O (topotype ME-SA, strain PanAsia-2) および 血清型 A (トポタイプ Asia, Iran-05 株)が循環している。
Asian Turkey (Anatolia) トルコ共和国のアジア部分 アナトリア[半島]は 口蹄疫風土病地域。

preemptive culling – swine as spreaders – 2001 UK foot-and-mouth crisis

ProMED-mail Archive Number 20110106.0072
Published Date 06-JAN-2011
Subject PRO/AH/EDR> Foot & mouth disease – S. Korea (02): update
Date: Thu 6 Jan 2011
Source: Korea Times [edited]
URL http://www.koreatimes.co.kr/www/news/include/print.asp?newsIdx=79256

殺処分頭数は 100万を超えるであろう…。

The ministry [ of Food, Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries 韓国農業部/ 農林水産食品部 MIFAFF] said that it decided to expand vaccinations as FMD has spread from cattle to other animals {Mod. AS氏解説: It is not clear why cattle are regarded by the ministry as the “spreaders [スプレッダー/ウイルス散布動物]” rather than swine, the latter known as prolific emitters [ウイルス大量放出/排出動物] of the FMD virus.}.

口蹄疫が畜牛から他の動物に伝播しているので、ワクチン接種を拡大すると決定 (韓国 MIFAFF)したが、豚よりも畜牛をウイルスのスプレッダーとした理由は明らかでない。
これまで、ワクチン使用を制限する[対策の]一環として、畜牛のみに接種している (2010年12月25日から、接種した畜牛 120万以上)。

OIE WAHIS データベース Follow-up Report 追跡調査報告 No. 8
URL http://www.oie.int/wahis/public.php?page=single_report&pop=1&reportid=10135
当ブログ https://epizootic.wordpress.com/2010/12/10/fmd-oie-follow-up-south-korea/
疫学的コメント Emergency vaccination against FMD for boars [雄ブタ] and sows [メスの成豚] in some areas started on 6 January 2011.
[2011年1月6日から 一部地域のブタ (雌の成豚および雄)を対象とした 口蹄疫 FMD[ウイルス]ワクチンの緊急接種を始めた。]

ProMED-mail Archive Number 20100509.1520
Published Date 09-MAY-2010
「豚からの口蹄疫ウイルス FMDV 拡大は、直接および間接接触に加えて、エアロゾルによっても起こる。口蹄疫ウイルス 血清型 O の風での拡散は、英国で 1967/8年の広範な動物間流行で、はっきり証明され、また実験的に確認された。豚は非常に大量のウイルスを産生し、天候によって、ウイルスは遠方まで風で運ばれる: 数百メートルから数キロメートルまたは さらに[遠方]。さらに、畜牛は呼吸器感染を非常に受けやすい。…」

ProMED-mail Archive Number 20101227.4557
Published Date 27-DEC-2010
豚は口蹄疫 virus ウイルスの prolific emitters 大量放出動物 / “spreaders” スプレッダーである。畜牛は口蹄疫ウイルスに very susceptible 非常に感染しやすい/ “高感受性”動物。

[Mod. AS氏解説:
The following comment has been received from Nick Honhold, a UK-based international consultant veterinary epidemiologist: “I noted the comparison with culling levels in the UK 2001 outbreak. The other interesting comparison is the use of widespread automatic contiguous preemptive culling [広範で自動的・連続的な先制殺処分]. This policy failed to prevent spread in the UK (see various published analyses of the field data from UK) and seemingly has also failed in South Korea”.
英国での広範な先制的殺処分対策は口蹄疫拡大を予防できなかった。韓国も同じようである (獣医疫学者 Nick Honhold 氏)。

ProMED-mail Archive Number 20100519.1646 ブログ記事 No. 11
Published Date 19-MAY-2010
「英国 2001年 口蹄疫クライシス(2001年2月19日、感染ブタ発見)では、同国で 1千万頭を超える羊や畜牛が殺処分された。オランダにも拡大し、感染拡大を阻止するため両国でワクチンが使われた。感染農場をワクチン接種した動物で囲う対策で、発生終息後、殺処分となった。…」